Document Type : Review Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Humanities, Hazrat Masoumeh University, Qom, Iran

2 Master of Business Administration, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Humanities, Hazrat Masoumeh University, Qom, Iran


Since the middle of the 20th century, the world has witnessed the rapid internationalization of industries, companies and markets. Environmental changes have reduced international trade barriers to a great extent, so that global markets have become accessible even to the youngest and smallest businesses. These developments have created a new form of international companies under the name of born global firms. In this regard, the aim of the current research is to provide a model of the rapid internationalization process of born global firms using the meta-synthesis method. Therefore, this research has developmental purpose and qualitative approach. To achieve the main goal of the research, the seven-step meta-synthesis method of Sandelowski and Barroso (2006) was used, and the importance and priority of each of the proposed factors was determined using Shannon's entropy quantitative method. After analyzing the articles, first 150 indicators were identified and classified into 31 dimensions, which include three parts: antecedents, process and consequences. Based on the results of Shannon's entropy quantitative analysis, the organizational, environmental and individual dimensions (founder) ranked first to third among the antecedents. Among the processes before entry, international development and growth and stabilization rank first to third, and among the consequences of rapid internationalization, global companies have the strategic and practical consequences of the first and second ranks, respectively.


[1] Paul, J., & Rosado-Serrano, A. (2019). Gradual internationalization vs born-global/international new venture models. International Marketing Review, 36(6), 830-858.‏
[2] Schueffel, P., Baldegger, R., & Amann, W. (2014). Behavioral patterns in born-again global firms: Towards a conceptual framework of the internationalization activities of mature SMEs", The Multinational Business Review.22(4), 418-441.
[3] Velt, H., Torkkeli, L., & Saarenketo, S. (2018). The entrepreneurial ecosystem and born globals: The Estonian context. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 12(2), 117-38.
[4] Liu, Y. (2017). Born global firms’ growth and collaborative entry mode: the role of transnational entrepreneurs. International Marketing Review.‏ 34(1), 46-67.
[5] Escandon-Barbosa, D., Rialp-Criado, J., Fuerst, S., Rodriguez-Orejuela, A., & Castro-Aristizabal, G. (2019). Born global: the influence of international orientation on export performance. Heliyon, 5(11), e02688.‏
[6] Oyna, S., Almor, T., Elango, B., & Tarba, S. Y. (2018). Maturing born globals and their acquisitive behaviour. International Business Review, 27(3), 714-725.‏
[7] Knight, G. A., & Liesch, P. W. (2016). Internationalization: From incremental to born global. Journal of World Business, 51(1), 93-102.
[8] Hughes, M., Cesinger, B., Cheng, C. F., Schuessler, F., & Kraus, S. (2019). A configurational analysis of network and knowledge variables explaining Born Globals' and late internationalizing SMEs' international performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 80, 172-187.
[9] Rodríguez‐Serrano, M. Á., & Martín‐Armario, E. (2019). Born‐global SMEs, performance, and dynamic absorptive capacity: evidence from Spanish firms. Journal of small business management, 57(2), 298-326.‏
[10] Kuryan, N., Khan, M. S., & Gustafsson, V. (2018). Born globals and business incubators: a case analysis. International Journal of Organizational Analysis. 26(3), 490-517.
[11] Madadkhani, m., Kazemi, A., Shahin,A., & Ansari, A (2020). Designing an Impact Model of Export Market Orientation and Product Design Management on Export Performance of Iranian Handicraft Exporting Companies. Management Research in Iran ,24(2),171-204, (in Persian).
[12] Hsieh, L., Child, J., Narooz, R., Elbanna, S., Karmowska, J., Marinova, S., & Zhang, Y. (2019). A multidimensional perspective of SME internationalization speed: The influence of entrepreneurial characteristics. International Business Review, 28(2), 268-283.
[13] Dzikowski, P. (2018). A bibliometric analysis of born global firms. Journal of Business Research, 85, 281-294.‏
[14] Wu, J. J. (2016). Total Resources and Speeds of Internationalization', Global Entrepreneurship: Past, Present & Future, Advances in International Management, 29, 279-314.
[15] Jin, B., Chung, J. E., Yang, H., & Jeong, S. W. (2018). Entry market choices and post-entry growth patterns among born globals in consumer goods sectors. International Marketing Review, 35(6), 958-980.
[16] Andersson, S. (2011). International entrepreneurship, born globals and the theory of effectuation. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 18(3), 627-643.
[17] Cheng, C., Zhong, H., & Cao, L. (2020). Facilitating speed of internationalization: The roles of business intelligence and organizational agility. Journal of Business Research, 110, 95-103.
[18] Silva, C., González-Loureiro, M., & Braga, V. (2019). The Speed of Internationalization of SME’s in Peripheral Regions of Europe: A Cognitive Approach. In Innovation, Engineering and Entrepreneurship (pp. 1024-1030). Springer International Publishing.‏
[19] Ciszewska-Mlinarič, M., Wójcik, P., & Obłój, K. (2020). Learning dynamics of rapidly internationalizing venture: Beyond the early stage of international growth in a CEE context. Journal of Business Research, 108, 450-465.‏
[20] Mirhosseini, Seyed Saeid; Azar, Adel; Jahanian, Saeid (2019). “Examining the risks and obstacles to the success of ERP implementation using the critical system heuristics (CSH) approach”, Journal of Modern Research in Decision Making, 4(4): 31-58, (in Persian). 20.1001.1.24766291.1398.
[21] Cancino, C. A., & Coronado, F. C. (2014). Exploring the determinants of born‐global firms in Chile. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración. 27(3), 386-401.
[22] Jørgensen, E. J. (2014). Internationalisation patterns of border firms: speed and embeddedness perspectives. International Marketing Review, 31(4), 438-458 .
[23] Fang, T., Tung, R. L., Berg, L., & Nematshahi, N. (2017). Parachuting internationalization: a study of four Scandinavian firms entering China. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 24(4), 554-589.
[24] Freeman, S., Hutchings, K., & Chetty, S. (2012). Born-globals and culturally proximate markets. Management International Review, 52(3), 425-460.‏
[25] Li, L., Qian, G., & Qian, Z. (2015). Speed of internationalization: Mutual effects of individual‐and company‐level antecedents. Global Strategy Journal, 5(4), 303-320.‏
[26] Andersson, S., Evers, N., & Gliga, G. (2018). Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal,21(2), 202-231.
[27] Dinçer, S. (2018). Content Analysis in Scientific Research: Meta-Analysis, Meta-Synthesis, and Descriptive Content Analysis. Bartın Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 7(1), 176-190.‏
[28] Edwards, J., & Kaimal, G. (2016). Using meta-synthesis to support application of qualitative methods findings in practice: A discussion of meta-ethnography, narrative synthesis, and critical interpretive synthesis. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 51, 30-35.‏
[29] Rayat Pishe, Saeid; Ahmadi Kohanali, Reza; Abbasnejad, Tayebe (2016). “Applying the qualitative approach meta syntheses for provide a comprehensive model of assessment of the sustainability in supply chain”, Journal of Modern Research in Decision Making, 1(1): 139-166, (in Persian).
[30] Rezaei Pendary Abbas, Yekezareh Mohsen (2016) "An interpretative structural model for factors of successful technology transfer in order to achieve sustainable development", Management Researches in Iran, Vol. 20, Issue 1,pp. 61-79, (in Persian).  20.1001.1.2322200.1395.
[31] Sandelowski, M., and Barroso, J. 2007. Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. New York, NY: Springer.
[32] Baier-Fuentes, H., Hormiga, E., Amorós, J. E., & Urbano, D. (2018). The influence of human and relational capital on the rapid internationalization of firms. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 31(4), 679-700.
[33] Catanzaro, A., Messeghem, K., & Sammut, S. (2019). Effectiveness of export support programs: Impact on the relational capital and international performance of early internationalizing small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management, 57, 436-461.‏
[34] Childs, M. L., & Jin, B. (2014). Is Uppsala model valid to fashion retailers? An analysis from internationalisation patterns of fast fashion retailers. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 18(1), 36-51.
[35] Jiang, G., Kotabe, M., Zhang, F., Hao, A. W., Paul, J., & Wang, C. L. (2020). The determinants and performance of early internationalizing firms: A literature review and research agenda. International Business Review, 29(4), 101662.‏
[36] Lin, S., & Si, S. (2019). The influence of exploration and exploitation on born globals’ speed of internationalization. Management Decision,  57(1), 193-210.
[37] Trudgen, R., & Freeman, S. (2014). Measuring the performance of born-global firms throughout their development process: The roles of initial market selection and internationalisation speed. Management International Review, 54(4), 551-579.‏ https