This study aims to evaluate the effect of gender identity on loyalty emphasizing on personal identity, consumption patterns, and Purchase decision making styles. This study is considered an applied research, and according to the method of gathering data is considered to be descriptive-survey research. The data of this research was gathered from a sample of 492 participants who were users of home appliances in city of Tehran through simple cluster sampling method. Questionnaires were used as data gathering tool. The data were analyzed by structural equation modeling via Lisrel software. The findings indicate that gender identity affects brand loyalty, personal identity, purchase decision making styles, and consumption patterns. Also, loyalty is affected by personal identity, purchase decision making styles, and consumption patterns. Finally, personal identity and consumption patterns affect purchase decision making styles.


  1. [1] Kurt, M., G.K. Sonja, and B. Sonja, Risk aversion and brand loyalty: the mediating role of brand trust and brand affect. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 2008. 17(3): p. 154-162. [2] Kamran-Disfani, O., et al., The impact of retail store format on the satisfaction-loyalty link: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 2017. 77(C): p. 14-22. [3] Atulkar, S. and B. Kesari, Satisfaction, loyalty and repatronage intentions: Role of hedonic shopping values. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2017. 39: p. 23-34. [4] Vera, J. and A. Trujillo, Searching most influential variables to brand loyalty measurements: An exploratory study. Contaduría y administración, 2017. 62(2): p. 600-624. [5] Nikhashemi, S.R., et al., The effect of customers’ perceived value of retail store on relationship between store attribute and customer brand loyalty: Some insights from Malaysia. Procedia Economics and Finance, 2016. 37: p. 432-438. [6] Das, G., 21(2), 130-138., Impacts of retail brand personality and self-congruity on store loyalty: The moderating role of gender. Journal of Retailing and Consumer services, 2014. 21(2): p. 130-138. [7] Homburg, C. and A. Giering, Personal characteristics as moderators of the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty—an empirical analysis. Psychology & Marketing, 2001. 18(1): p. 66-43. [8] Mittal, V. and W.A. Kamakura, Satisfaction, repurchase intent, and repurchase behavior: Investigating the moderating effect of customer characteristics. Journal of marketing research, 2001. 38(1): p. 131-142. [9] Sharma, P., I.S. Chen, and S.T. Luk, Gender and age as moderators in the service evaluation process. Journal of Services Marketing, 2012. 26(2): p. 102-114. [10] Faqih, K.M., An empirical analysis of factors predicting the behavioral intention to adopt Internet shopping technology among non-shoppers in a developing country context: Does gender matter? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2016. 30: p. 140-164. [11] Borges, A., B.J. Babin, and N. Spielmann, Gender orientation and retail atmosphere: effects on value perception. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 2013. 41(7): p. 498-511. [12] Yildirim, K., K. Cagatay, and M.L. Hidayetoğlu, The effect of age, gender and education level on customer evaluations of retail furniture store atmospheric attributes. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 2015. 43(8): p. 712-726. [13] Melnyk, V., S.M.V. Osselaer, and T.H. Bijmolt, Are women more loyal customers than men? Gender differences in loyalty to firms and individual service providers. Journal of Marketing, 2009. 73(4): p. 82-96. [14] Audrain-Pontevia, A.-F. and M. Vanhuele, Where do customer loyalties really lie, and why? Gender differences in store loyalty. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 2016. 44(8): p. 799-813. [15] Melnyk, V., Resisting temptation: gender differences in customer loyalty in the presence of a more attractive alternative. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 2014. 22(4): p. 335-341. [16] Hasan, B., Exploring gender differences in online shopping attitude. Computers in Human Behavior, 2010. 26(4): p. 597-601. [17] Cho, S. and J.E. Workman, Effects of need for touch, centrality of visual product aesthetics and gender on channel preference for apparel shopping. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 2015. 6(2): p. 120-135. [18] Lee Taylor, S. and R.M. Cosenza, Profiling later aged female teens: mall shopping behavior and clothing choice. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 2002. 19(5): p. 393-408. [19] Hui, T.K. and D. Wan, Factors affecting Internet shopping behaviour in Singapore: gender and educational issues. International journal of consumer studies, 2007. 31(3): p. 310-316. [20] Chang, T.S. and H. Yeh, Gender differences in Taiwan’s hypermarkets: Investigating shopping times and product categories. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 2016. 28(4): p. 650-662. [21] Bakewell, C. and V.-W. Mitchell, Male versus female consumer decision making styles. Journal of business research, 2006. 59(12): p. 1297-1300. [22] Chambers, S., et al., The influence of age and gender on food choice: a focus group exploration. International journal of consumer studies, 2008. 32(4): p. 356-365. [23] Tifferet, S. and R. Herstein, Gender differences in brand commitment, impulse buying, and hedonic consumption. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 2012. 21(3): p. 176-182. [24] Warren, J.J., Constructions of meaning and personal identity in the decision-making of community safety professionals. 2010. [25] Askari Matin, S., Measuring the Effectiveness of National Identity on the Reconstruction of Individual Identity of Foreign Language Learners. Quarterly national studies, 2015. 16(4): p. 3-20. [26] Rahimnia, F., A. Kafashpour, and S. Feiz Mohammadi, Investigating the effect of brand distinction and prestige on customer loyalty by customer identification with brand (Case study: Toyota dealers' clients). Journal of Research in New Marketing Research, 2014. Year 4, Number 3(14): p. 1-6. [27] Van Slyke, C., C.L. Comunale, and F. Belanger, Gender differences in perceptions of web-based shopping. Communications of the ACM, 2002. 45(8): p. 82-86. [28] Coley, A. and B. Burgess, Gender differences in cognitive and affective impulse buying. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 2003. 7(3): p. 282-295. [29] Hansen, T. and J. Møller Jensen, Shopping orientation and online clothing purchases: the role of gender and purchase situation. European Journal of Marketing, 2009. 43(9/10): p. 1154-1170. [30] Oly Ndubisi, N., Effect of gender on customer loyalty: a relationship marketing approach. Marketing intelligence & planning, 2006. 24(1): p. 48-61. [31] Alonso-Almeida, M.d.M. and K. Bremser, Does gender specific decision making exist? EuroMed Journal of Business, 2015. 10(1): p. 47-65. [32] Korgaonkar, P.K., D. Lund, and B. Price, A structural equations approach toward examination of store attitude and store patronage behavior. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 1985. 61(2): p. 39-60. [33] Gentry, J.W., M. Doering, and T.V. O'Brien, Masculinity and femininity factors in product perception and self image. ACR North American Advances, 1987. [34] Maryjie, S. and M. Mouzenzadeh Sultan Abadi, Exploring the relationship between identity and gender with consumption in two Western and Islamic approaches. Two Journal of Religion and Cultural Policy, 2016(7): p. 55-74. [35] Hogg, M.K. and J. Garrow, Gender, identity and the consumption of advertising. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 2003. 6(3): p. 160-174. [36] Ericksen, M.K., Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase intention: A European perspective. Journal of Euromarketing, 1997. 4(1): p. 41-56. [37] Bhana, M.U., The relationship between product modification and personal identity (Doctoral dissertation). 2014. [38] Elliott, R.H. and K. Wattanasuwan, Brands as Symbolic Resources for the Construction of Identity. International Journal of Advertising, 1998. 17(2): p. 134-144. [39] Nazarpourkashani, H., et al., Family and consumption pattern; Qualitative analysis on shopping behavior patterns based on lifestyle theories. Journal of Cultural-Educational Women and Family, 2016. 10(34): p. 36-71. [40] Molasaeidi, S., Prognosis of consumption pattern based on lifestyle components. Social Science Scientific Research Papers, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch 2016. 11(1): p. 249-272. [41] Kwan, C.Y., K.W. Yeung, and K.F. Au, Relationships between consumer decision-making styles and lifestyle characteristics: Young fashion consumers in China. Journal of the Textile Institute, 2008. 99(3): p. 193-209. [42] Lin, L.-Y. and H.-Y. Shih, The relationship of university students’ lifestyle, money attitude, personal value and their purchase decision. International journal of Research in Management, 2012. 1(2): p. 19-37. [43] Anitha, N., Influence of Lifestyle on Consumer Decision Making With Special Reference to Organized Retail Formats in Chennai. Indian Journal of Commerce and Management Studies, 2016. 7(1): p. 85. [44] Aaker, D.A., Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California management review, 1996. 38(3). [45] Berger, J. and C. Heath, Where consumers diverge from others: Identity signaling and product domains. Journal of Consumer Research, 2007. 34(2): p. 121-134. [46] Lam, S.K., M. Ahearne, and N. Schillewaert, A multinational examination of the symbolic–instrumental framework of consumer–brand identification. Journal of International Business Studies, 2012. 43(3): p. 306-311. [47] Cha, M.-K., Y. Yi, and R.P. Bagozzi, Effects of Customer Participation in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Programs on the CSR-Brand Fit and Brand Loyalty. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 2015. 57(3): p. 235–249. [48] Vázquez Casielles, R. and B. Álvarez Álvarez, Consumers' characteristics and brand choice behaviour: Loyalty and consumption. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 2007. 15(2): p. 121-131. [49] Park, Y.A., Investigating online decision-making styles. 2007: Texas A&M University. [50] Oke, A.O., et al., Consumer behavior towards decision making and loyalty to particular brands. International Review of Management and Marketing, 2016. 6: p. 43-52. [51] Momani, R.A., The Impact of Brand Dimension on the Purchasing Decision Making of the Jordanian Consumer for Shopping Goods. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2015. 6(7): p. 149-168. [52] Simonson, I. and R.S. Winer, The influence of purchase quantity and display format on consumer preference for variety. .Journal of Consumer Research, 1992. 19(1): p. 133-138. [53] Bahari, J.f., et al., Effect of Special Value on Consumer Consumption and Confidence in Hotel Industry (Case Study: Five Star Hotels in Tabriz). Journal of Research and Urban Planning, 2017. 7(26): p. 194-173. [54] Candan, B., S. Ünal, and A. Erciş, 46 Analysing the relationship between consumption values and brand loyalty of young people: A study on personal care products. Management, 2013. 29: p. 46 [55] Lues, H.-T. and N. De Klerk, Gender differences in brand loyalty towards fashion brands among generation Y students. 2017. [56] Shiffman, M., Peer relations in adolescents with gender identity disorder. 2013. [57] Nario-Redmond, M.R., et al., The social and personal identities scale: A measure of the differential importance ascribed to social and personal self-categorizations. Self and Identity, 2004. 3(2): p. 143-175. [58] Owolabi, A., Ethnic identity, social class and consumption pattern among three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 2014. 1(5): p. 149-159. [59] Trondsen, T., et al., Health and seafood consumption patterns among women aged45–69 years. A Norwegian seafood consumption study. Food quality and preference, 2004. 15(2): p. 117-128. [60] Sprotles, G.B. and E.L. Kendall, A methodology for profiling consumers' decision‐making styles. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 1986. 20(2): p. 267-279. [61] Lin, C.-W., et al., Investigating the development of brand loyalty in brand communities from a positive psychology perspective. Journal of Business Research, 2017. [62] Alirezanejad, S., P. Sudanian, and J. Namini, Professional or gender identity: A study of educated, working women over 35 in Tehran. Journal of Social Sciences, 2013(60): p. 271-305. [63] Belk, R.W., Possessions and the extended self. Journal of consumer research, 1988. 15(2): p. 139-168.