Applying ethics issues into decision making process is effective for ethics enforcement in society. Normative ethics researches through determining the criteria of good and bad actions, try to guide people by presenting ethical norms for certain situations. Also ethical decision making measuring scales cause knowledge for improvements on this (however these scales are mainly based on psychological aspects rather than ethical theories). In this research the Islamic moral doctrine is used as the base for developing a Personal Selling Ethical Assessment Scale. Using Grounded Theory strategy with some modifications, 12 semi-structured interviews with Islamic ethics and marketing experts is done. And by open-coding analysis in Atlas.ti software, the ethical criteria: Committing Anti-Religious, Halal but Anti-Ethical Actions, Breach of Trust and Abuse of Trust, Lying, Bribes & Gifts, Behaviors causing Immorality in future like Reciprocity, Dishonesty and Special Treatment, Lack of Adherence to Commitments and Overpromising, Deception and Conflict of Interest, Scarcity and Inside Information, Creating a Monopoly, Hiding about the product to the customer, Price Discrimination, Manipulation, Abuse of Customer Unawareness, Cheating, Misleading and Puffery, Causing Coercion like Forcing Samples on Buyer and Limiting the Autonomy are extracted. This research focuses on the ethical actions of personal selling in relation to customers and presents some criteria for preventing unethical acts.


 [1]    Rabbipour M. A., Samadivand M. (2011) "Management morals from viewpoint of quranic verses and religius traditions", Journal of Productivity Management (Beyound Management), 15(4): 211-227, (In Persian).
[2]    Dadgar Y. (2008) "Commercial (and business) ethics from viewpoint of economy and islamic economy", Iranian Journal of Trade Studies, 48(12) : 87-120, (In Persian).
[3]    Shoul A., Ebrahiminejad M., Namdaran M. R. (2012) "The study of the relationship between work ethics and customer-orientation", The Modares Journal of Management Research in Iran, 16(2): 19-33, (In Persian).
[4]    Gharamaleki A. F. (2006) Ethical Organizations in Business, Qom: Majnoon Press (In Persian).
[5]    Elmi M. (1998) Ethics in Commerce: Ethical Guidelines for Success in Business, Tehran: Business Publishers Company Press (In Persian).
[6]    Amirshahi M. A., Shirazi M., Ghavam S. (2011) "Studying the relationship between the salespersons’ personal moral philosophy and their ethical decision making process", Management Studies in development and Evaluation, 63(Winter & Spring), pp. 27-62, (In Persian).
[7]    Ahmadi S. A. A., Asgaridehabadi H. R. (2004) Managing Business Ethics, Tehran: Mehraban Publishers Press, (In Persian).
[8]    - (2007). QURAN, Translated by Ghomshee, M. E., Tehran: Dehgani (Esmaeelian) Press (In Persian).
[9]    Rezaee H., Shafiee M. M. (2009) "Studying ages of marketing with a new approach to the ethics of marketing”, Journal of Commercial Surveys, 34(7), pp. 19-27, (In Persian).
[10]Kotler Ph., Armstrong G. (2010) Principles of marketing, Translated by Frozande, B. Isfahan: Amookhteh press, 10ed (In Persian).
[11]Makaremshirazi N. (1998). Morals in QURAN, Qom: Emam Ali School Press, Vol.1 (In Persian).
[12]Mostafamontaghemi F. (2010) "Introduction to business and advertising ethics in e-commerce from protecting viewpoint of consumer rights", Journal of Commercial Surveys, 40(8): 21-39, (In Persian).
[13]Moghnie M. J. (2008) Moral Philosophy in Islam, Translated by safi A., Qom: Dar-o-l Ketab-e Islami  press, Vol. 1 (In Persian).
[14]Mesbahyazdi M. T. (2008) Moral doctorin review, Qom: Emam Khomeini Educational and Research School press (In Persian).
[15]Seiedmortaz S., Gharshasbi E. (2009) "A review on principals of moral and medical ethics”, Journal of Daneshvar Medicine, Vol. 18 No. 90. (In Persian).
[16]Gharamaleki A. F. (1993) Professional ethics, Tehran: Naghshe Sobhan Press, Vol.1, (In Persian).
[17]Noroozi A. (2001) Studying Islamic Customer Satisfaction Model (M.A. thesis), University of Tehran, Iran (In Persian).
[18]Heidarinaraghi A. M. (2006) Imam Sajad,s Treatise on Rights, Qom: Mehdi Naraghi press, Vol. 3 (In Persian).
[19]Casali G. L. (2011) "Developing a multidimensional scale for ethical Decision making", Journal of Business Ethics, 104, pp. 485–497.
[20]Ishida C. (2006) "How do scores of DIT and MJT differ? A critical assessment of the use of alternative moral development scales in studies of business ethics", Journal of Business Ethics, 67(1): 63–74.
[21]Tansey R., Brown G., Hyman M. R., Dawson Jr. (1994) "Personal moral philosophies and the moral judgments of salespeople", The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 14(1): 59-72.
[22]Zgheib P. W. (2005) "Managerial ethics: An empirical study of business students in the American University of Beirut", Journal of Business Ethics, 61(1): 69–78.
[23]Reidenbach R. E., Robin D. P. (1990) "Toward the development of a multidimensional scale for improving evaluations of business ethics", Journal of Business Ethics, 9(8): 639–653.
[24]Donoho C., Heinze T. (2011) "The personal selling ethics scale: Revisions and expansions for teaching sales ethics", Journal of Marketing Education, 33(1): 107–122.
[25]Strauss A., Corbin J. (2006) Principal of quantitative research: Grounded Theory, procedures and practices, Translated by Mohamadi B., Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies press, Vol. 1. (In Persian).
[26]Danaeifard H. (2005) "Developing theories by using inductive approach: Grounded theory strategy", Journal of Shahed University, 12new (11), (In Persian).
[27]Labafi S. (2001) Policy-making process pathology in islamic republic of Iran broadcasting organization to provide the desired model (M.A. Thesis), University of Tehran, Iran (In Persian).
[28]Khanmohammadi H. (2009) Developing islamic republic of Iran’s scientific system policies on the basis of the supreme leader’s instructions using grounded theory strategy (M.A. thesis), Imam Sadiq University, Iran (In Persian).
[29]Danaeifard H., Alvani S. M., Azar A. (2007) Qualitative research methodology in management: A comprehensive approach, Tehran: Safar-Eshraghi press, Vol. 2, (In Persian).
[30]Iman M. T., Mohamadian M. (2008) "Grounded theory methodology", Methodology of Social Sciences and Humanities Journal, 56(14):. 31-54, (In Persian).
[31]Gholimotlagh M. (2002) Developing a scale based on the Islamic professional ethics for assessing decisions in marketing system (Case Study: Personal Selling) (M.A. thesis), University of Tehran, Iran, (In Persian).
[32]Hadavinejad M., Danaeifard H., Azar A., Khaefelah A. A. (2010) "Exploring the process of “hypocritical behaviors in interpersonal communication in the workplace” using grounded theory", Strategic Management Thought Journal, 1(4): 81-130, (In Persian).
[33]Sanoubar N., Motafakerazad M. A., Razi N. (2010) "A comparison of the islamic and capitalist view of mixed marketing decisions", Journal of Iran’s Economic Essays, 13(7): 173-207, (In Persian).
[34]Akbariemami SH., Moshabakidesining A., Khodadadhosseini S., H., Khordnaeig A. (2016) "The behavioral successful strategy implementation model", The Modares Journal of Management Research in Iran, 20 (1): 103-130, (In Persian).