عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This research is designed to identify challenges and barriers of women for promotion to managerial positions in public and state owned organizations. Recent studies have showed that the total number of women have gained managerial positions has increased. But they still have little share of managerial positions.
Therefore the objectives of this research are:
1. Identifying characteristics of women appointed to managerial positions,
2. Recognizing influential variables in promotion to managerial positions or the way they have obtained and promoted to these positions,
3. Identifying skills and competencies that could be thought to woman managers in order to easily accept the responsibilities,
4. Identifying restrictional factors or barriers of further promotion of woman to senior managerial levels.
The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by 257 women managers in public and stated owned organizations and minsitries. The results showed that:
- Most women managers have university degrees in humanities disciplines, average 40 years age, and 5-10 years tenure.
- The main influential factors in obtaining the position were: reliable performance, track record, higher education, experience and following the organizational rules.
- The skills and competencies that they learned during the first management related skills are self - assurance, correct judgement, etc.
- Women managers suffer many problems including community and public attitudes toward women, as well as subordinates, unfair and unequal incentives or opportunities.
The major promotion barriers are decision making biases and traditional attitudes toward role of women in the society. According to factor analysis done, socio-cultural factors are mentioned more than organizational and personnal, factors.
On the basis of these findings, the study offers few suggestions to women managers, decision makers in organizations, as well as policy makers in government.